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Role of cyclic AMP in the eye of glaucoma
Myoung Sup Shim1, Keun-Young Kim2, Won-Kyu Ju1,*
1Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA,
2Center for Research on Biological Systems, National Center for Microscopy and Imaging Research and Department of Neuroscience, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA
Abstract
Glaucoma is characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of optic nerve, including retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the optic nerve head (ONH), leading to visual impairment. Despite the high prevalence, the biological basis of glaucoma pathogenesis still is not yet fully understood, and the factors contributing to its progression are currently not well characterized. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor, and reduction of IOP is the standard treatment for glaucoma. However, lowering IOP itself is not always effective for preserving visual function in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma. The second messenger cyclic adenosine 3∏,5∏-monophosphate (cAMP) regulates numerous biological processes in the central nervous system including retina and optic nerve. In this review, we will discuss the functional role of cAMP in aqueous humour dynamics and IOP regulation, and review the current medications, which are related to cAMP signaling pathway, for glaucoma treatment. Also, we will further focus on cAMP signaling in RGC growth and regeneration by soluble AC as well as ONH astrocytes by transmembrane ACs to understand its potential role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma neurodegeneration.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript(in press) [Submitted on December 5, 2016, Accepted on December 5, 2016]
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