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Two distinct nodes of translational inhibition in the Integrated Stress Response
Deepika Vasudevan1, Hyung Don Ryoo1,*
1Department of Cell Biology, New York University School of Medicine, 550 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016, U.S.A
Abstract
The Integrated Stress Response (ISR) refers to a signaling pathway initiated by stress-activated eIF2 kinases. Once activated, the pathway causes attenuation of global mRNA translation while also paradoxically inducing stress response gene expression. A detailed analysis of this pathway has helped us better understand how stressed cells coordinate gene expression at translational and transcriptional levels. The translational attenuation associated with this pathway has been largely attributed to the phosphorylation of the translational initiation factor eIF2. However, independent studies are now pointing to a second translational regulation step involving a downstream ISR target, 4E-BP, in the inhibition of eIF4E and specifically cap-dependent translation. The activation of 4E-BP is consistent with previous reports implicating the roles of 4E-BP resistant, Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) dependent translation in ISR active cells. In this review, we provide an overview of the translation inhibition mechanisms engaged by the ISR and how they impact the translation of stress response genes.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript(in press) [Submitted on August 14, 2017, Accepted on August 14, 2017]
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