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Chitinase 3-like-1, a novel regulator of Th1/CTL responses, as a therapeutic target for increasing anti-tumor immunity
Do-Hyun Kim1, Je-Min Choi1,*
1Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences and 2Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Chitinase-Like Proteins (CLPs) are an evolutionarily conserved protein which lose their enzymatic activity for degrading chitin macromolecules. Chitinase-3-like-1 (Chi3l1) is a type of CLP that is highly expressed in epithelial cells, macrophages, etc., and is known to have correlations with type 2 inflammation and cancer. Although the increased level of Chi3l1 in the blood was reported in various disease patients, the function of Chi3l1 in adaptive immunity has been totally unknown. Recently, we found that Chi3l1 is expressed in T cells and has a negative regulatory role in T-cell activation and proliferation. A genetic ablation study of Chi3l1 in T cells showed hyperresponsiveness to TcR stimulation, which increased proliferation and Th1 differentiation. A significant increase of IFNャ signaling in Chi3l1-deficient T cells synergistically increased Th1 and CTL functions against melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, targeted knockdown by Chi3l1 siRNA complexed with the cell-penetrating peptide dNP2, which showed decreased pulmonary melanoma metastasis with increased infiltration of Th1 and CTL in the lung. This study first suggests that Chi3l1 is a novel regulator of Th1/CTL responses and could be a target for treating cancer to increase tumor immunity.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on April 25, 2018, Accepted on April 25, 2018]
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