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Mycoplasma exploits mammalian tunneling nanotubes for cell-to-cell disseminatio
Bong-Woo Kim1,2, Jae-Seon Lee3, Young-Gyu Ko1,4,*
1Tunneling Nanotube Research Center, Korea University,
2Skin Innovation R&D centre, HnB9 Co., Ltd.,
3Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, Inha University,
4Division of Life Sciences, Korea University, Korea University
Abstract
Using tunneling nanotubes (TNTs), various pathological molecules and viruses disseminate to adjacent cells intercellularly. Here, we show that the intracellular invasion of Mycoplasma hyorhinis induces the formation of actin- and tubulin-based TNTs in various mammalian cell lines. M. hyorhinis was found in TNTs generated by M. hyorhinis infection in NIH3T3 cells. Because mycoplasma-free recipient cells received mycoplasmas from M. hyorhinis-infected donor cells in a mixed co-culture system and not a spatially separated co-culture system, direct cell-to-cell contact via TNTs was necessary for the intracellular dissemination of M. hyorhinis. The activity of Rac1, which is a small GTP binding protein, was increased by the intracellular invasion of M. hyorhinis, and its pharmacological and genetic inhibition prevented M. hyorhinis infection-induced TNT generation in NIH3T3 cells. The pharmacological and genetic inhibition of Rac1 also reduced the cell-to-cell dissemination of M. hyorhinis. Based on these data, we conclude that intracellular invasion of M. hyorhinis induces the formation of TNTs, which are used for the cell-to-cell dissemination of M. hyorhinis.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on October 15, 2018, Accepted on November 4, 2018]
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