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E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases as modulators of TRAIL-mediated extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway
Taeg Kyu Kwon1,*, Seon Min Woo1
1Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu 42601, Korea
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway through formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), followed by activation of effector caspases. TRAIL receptors are composed of death receptors (DR4 and DR5), decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2), and osteoprotegerin. Among them, only DRs activate apoptotic signaling by TRAIL. Since the levels of DR expressions are higher in cancer cells than in normal cells, TRAIL selectively activates apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells. However, multiple mechanisms, including down-regulation of DR expression and pro-apoptotic proteins, and up-regulation of anti-apoptotic proteins, make cancer cells TRAIL-resistant. Therefore, many researchers have investigated strategies to overcome TRAIL resistance. In this review, we focus on protein regulation in relation to extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways via ubiquitination. The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is an important process in control of protein degradation and stabilization, and regulates proliferation and apoptosis in cancer cells. The level of ubiquitination of proteins is determined by the balance of E3 ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs), which determine protein stability. Regulation of the UPS may be an attractive target for enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our review provides insight to increasing sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis through control of post-translational protein expression.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on January 7, 2019, Accepted on January 7, 2019]
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