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This galley proof is being listed electronically before publishing the final manuscript (It's not final version).

Effects of メ-lipoic acid on LPS-induced neuroinflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation through the regulation of BV-2 microglial cells activation
Su Min Kim1,#, Ji Sun Ha1,#, A Reum Han2, Sung-Woo Cho2,#, Seung-Ju Yang1,*,#
1Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, Konyang University, Daejeon, Korea,
2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
Microglial cells are known as the main immune cells in the central nervous system, both regulating its immune response and maintaining its homeostasis. Furthermore, the antioxidant メ-lipoic acid (LA) is a recognized therapeutic drug for diabetes because it can easily invade the blood–brain barrier. This study investigated the effect of メ-LA on the inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated BV-2 microglial cells. Our results revealed that メ-LA significantly attenuated several inflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-メ and interleukin (IL)-6, and other cytotoxic molecules, such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. In addition, メ-LA inhibited the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK and p38 and its pharmacological properties were facilitated via the inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Moreover, メ-LA suppressed the activation of NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes, multiprotein complexes consisting of NLRP3 and caspase-1, which are involved in the innate immune response. Finally, メ-LA decreased the genes accountable for the M1 phenotype, IL-1モ and ICAM1, whereas it increased the genes responsible for the M2 phenotype, MRC1 and ARG1. These findings suggest that メ-LA alleviates the neuroinflammatory response by regulating microglial polarization.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript(in press) [Submitted on January 25, 2019, Accepted on February 12, 2019]
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