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MLL5, a histone modifying enzyme, regulates androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells by recruiting co-regulators, HCF1 and SET1
Kyoung-Hwa Lee1 (Research professor), ByungChan Kim1 (Research worker), Chang Wook Jeong1 (Professor), Ja Hyeon Ku1 (Professor), Hyeon Hoe Kim1 (Professor), Cheol Kwak1,2,* (Professor)
1Department of Urology, Seoul National University Hospital,
2Department of Urology, Seoul National University College of Medicine
Abstract
In prostate cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) transcription factor is a major regulator of cell proliferation and metastasis. To identify new AR regulators, we focused on Mixed lineage leukemia 5 (MLL5), a histone-regulating enzyme, because significantly higher MLL5 expression was detected in prostate cancer tissues than in matching normal tissues. When we expressed shRNAs targeting MLL5 gene in prostate cancer cell line, the growth rate and AR activity were reduced compared to those in control cells, and migration ability of the knockdown cells was reduced significantly. To determine the molecular mechanisms of MLL5 on AR activity, we proved that AR physically interacted with MLL5 and other co-factors, including SET-1 and HCF-1, using an immunoprecipitation method. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed reduced binding of MLL5, co-factors, and AR enzymes to AR target gene promoters in MLL5 shRNA-expressing cells. Histone H3K4 methylation on the AR target gene promoters was reduced, and H3K9 methylation at the same site was increased in MLL5 knockdown cells. Finally, xenograft tumor formation revealed that reduction of MLL5 in prostate cancer cells retarded tumor growth. Our results thus demonstrate the important role of MLL5 as a new epigenetic regulator of AR in prostate cancer.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript(in press) [Submitted on August 5, 2020, Accepted on October 13, 2020]
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