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Olfactory pathology in Alzheimer’s disease: a sign of ongoing neurodegeneration
Gowoon Son1,2,3 (Graduate student), Ali Jahanshahi2,3 (Associated professor), Seung-Jun Yoo4,5 (Post doctoral fellow), Jackson Boonstra2,3 (Graduate student), David Hopkins6 (Professor), Harry Steinbusch 1,3,# (Professor), Cheil Moon 1,4,*,# (Professor)
1Brain & Cognitive Sciences, DGIST,
2Department of Neurosurgery, Maastricht University Medical Center+,
3School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University,
4Convergence Research Advanced Centre for Olfaction, DGIST,
5Neurogenetics, Max Planck Research Unit,
6Department of Medical Neuroscience, Dalhousie University
Abstract
Olfactory neuropathology has shown to be a cause of olfactory loss in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Olfactory dysfunction is also associated with memory and cognitive dysfunction and has been considered an incidental finding of AD-dementia. Here we review neuropathological research on the olfactory system in AD considering both structural and functional evidence. Experimental and clinical findings identify olfactory dysfunction as an early indicator of AD. In keeping with this, amyloid-モ production and neuroinflammation have shown to be related to underlying causes of impaired olfaction. Notably, physiological features of the spatial map in the olfactory system suggest the evidence of ongoing neurodegeneration. The aim of this review is to examine olfactory pathology findings essential to identifying mechanisms of olfactory dysfunction in the development of AD in hopes of supporting investigations leading towards revealing potential diagnostic methods and causes of early pathogenesis in the olfactory system.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript(in press) [Submitted on April 16, 2021, Accepted on May 6, 2021]
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