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This galley proof is being listed electronically before publishing the final manuscript (It's not final version).

 
Immune cell-derived small extracellular vesicles in cancer treatment
Sung-Jin Choi1 (Graduate student), Hanchae Cho1 (Graduate student), Kyungmoo Yea1 (Professor), Moon-Chang Baek1,* (Professor)
1Department of New Biology, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology, Daegu 42988, Republic of Korea,
2Department of Molecular Medicine, CMRI, Exosome Convergence Research Center (ECRC), School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Republic of Korea.
Abstract
Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) secreted by most cells carry bioactive macromolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids for intercellular communication. Given that some immune cell-derived sEVs exhibit anti-cancer properties, these sEVs have received scientific attention for the development of novel anti-cancer immunotherapeutic agents. In this paper, we reviewed the latest advances concerning the biological roles of immune cell-derived sEVs for cancer therapy. sEVs derived from immune cells including dendritic cells (DCs), T cells, natural-killer (NK) cells, and macrophages are good candidates for sEV-based cancer therapy. Besides their role of cancer vaccines, DC-shed sEVs activated cytotoxic lymphocytes and killed tumor cells. sEVs isolated from NK cells and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells exhibited cytotoxicity against cancer cells. sEVs derived from CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells inhibited cancer-associated cells in tumor microenvironment (TME) and activated B cells, respectively. M1-macrophage-derived sEVs induced M2 to M1 repolarization and also created a pro-inflammatory environment. Hence, these sEVs, via mono or combination therapy, could be considered in the treatment of cancer patients in the future. In addition, sEVs derived from cytokine-stimulated immune cells or sEV engineering could improve their anti-tumor potency.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on September 16, 2021, Accepted on October 26, 2021]
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