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Hyper-inflammatory responses in COVID-19 and anti-inflammatory therapeutic approaches
Hojun Choi 1 (Senior researcher), Eui-Cheol Shin 2,3,* (Professor)
1ILIAS Biologics Inc., Daejeon 34014, Republic of Korea,
2Laboratory of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea,
3The Center for Epidemic Preparedness, KAIST, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing global pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit hyper-inflammatory responses characterized by excessive activation of myeloid cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, and a plethora of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Accumulating evidence also indicates that hyper-inflammation is a driving factor for severe progression of the disease, which has prompted the development of anti-inflammatory therapies for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Corticosteroids, IL-6R inhibitors, and JAK inhibitors have demonstrated promising results in treating patients with severe disease. In addition, diverse forms of exosomes that exert anti-inflammatory functions have been tested experimentally for the treatment of COVID-19. Here, we briefly describe the immunological mechanisms of the hyper-inflammatory responses in patients with severe COVID-19. We also summarize current anti-inflammatory therapies for the treatment of severe COVID-19 and novel exosome-based therapeutics that are in experimental stages.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on October 26, 2021, Accepted on December 3, 2021]
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