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Emerging role of bystander T cell activation in autoimmune diseases
Chae-Hyeon Shim1 (Graduate student), Sookyung Cho1 ( Research worker), Young-Mi Shin1 ( Research worker), Je-Min Choi1,* (Professor)
1Department of Life Science, College of Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Republic of Korea
Abstract
Autoimmune disease is known to be caused by unregulated self-antigen-specific T cells, causing tissue damage. Although antigen specificity is an important mechanism of the adaptive immune system, antigen non-related T cells have been found in the inflamed tissues in various conditions. Bystander T cell activation refers to the activation of T cells without antigen recognition. During an immune response to a pathogen, bystander activation of self-reactive T cells via inflammatory mediators such as cytokines can trigger autoimmune diseases. Other antigen-specific T cells can also be bystander-activated to induce innate immune response resulting in autoimmune disease pathogenesis along with self-antigen-specific T cells. In this review, we summarize previous studies investigating bystander activation of various T cell types (NKT, ャヤ T cells, MAIT cells, conventional CD4+, and CD8+ T cells) and discuss the role of innate-like T cell response in autoimmune diseases. In addition, we also review previous findings of bystander T cell function in infection and cancer. A better understanding of bystander-activated T cells versus antigen-stimulated T cells provides a novel insight to control autoimmune disease pathogenesis.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript(in press) [Submitted on December 14, 2021, Accepted on January 10, 2022]
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