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The translational landscape as regulated by the RNA helicase DDX3
Joon Tae Park 1 (Professor), Sekyung Oh 2,* (Professor)
1Division of Life Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, South Korea,
2Department of Medical Science, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon 22711, South Korea
Continuously renewing the proteome, translation is exquisitely controlled by a number of dedicated factors that interact with the ribosome. The RNA helicase DDX3 belonging to the DEAD box family has emerged as one of the critical regulators of translation, the failure of which is frequently observed in a wide range of proliferative, degenerative, and infectious diseases in humans. DDX3 unwinds double-stranded RNA molecules with coupled ATP hydrolysis and thereby remodels complex RNA structures present in various protein-coding and noncoding RNAs. By interacting with specific features on messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), DDX3 facilitates translation, while repressing it under certain conditions. We review recent findings underlying these properties of DDX3 in diverse modes of translation, such as cap-dependent and cap-independent translation initiation, usage of upstream open reading frames, and stress-induced ribonucleoprotein granule formation. We further discuss how disease-associated DDX3 variants alter the translation landscape in the cell.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on December 29, 2021, Accepted on February 28, 2022]
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