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G protein-coupled receptors in stem cell maintenance and somatic reprogramming to pluripotent or cancer stem cells
Ssang-Goo Cho1,*, Hye Yeon Choi1, Subbroto Kumar Saha1, Kyeongseok Kim1, Sangsu Kim1, Gwang-Mo Yang1, BongWoo Kim1, Jin-hoi Kim1
1Department of Animal Biotechnology, Animal Resources Research Center, and Incurable Disease Animal Model and Stem Cell Institute (IDASI), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea
Abstract
The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) compose the third largest gene family in the human genome, representing more than 800 distinct genes and 3–5% of the human genome. GPCRs are divided into five distinct families: rhodopsin, secretin, adhesion, glutamate, and frizzled. They bind and regulate 80% of all hormones and account for 20–50% of the pharmaceuticals on the current market. Hundreds of GPCRs integrate and coordinate the functions of individual cells, mediating signaling between various organs. GPCRs are crucial players in tumor progression, adipogenesis, and inflammation. Several studies have also confirmed their central roles in embryonic development and stem cell maintenance. Recently, GPCRs have emerged as key players in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation, migration, and self-renewal in pluripotent (PSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs). Our study and other reports have revealed that the expression of many GPCRs is modulated during the generation of induced PSCs (iPSCs) or CSCs and during CSC sphere formation. These GPCRs may have crucial roles in the regulation of self-renewal and other biological properties of iPSCs and CSCs. This review addresses the current understanding of the role of GPCRs in stem cell maintenance and somatic reprogramming to PSCs or CSCs.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript(in press) [Submitted on November 21, 2014, Accepted on November 21, 2014]
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