We investigated whether SIRT1 is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during CK2 downregulation-mediated senescence. SIRT1 overexpression suppressed ROS accumulation, reduced transcription of FoxO3a target genes, and nuclear export and acetylation of FoxO3a, which were induced by CK2 downregulation in HCT116 and MCF-7 cells. Conversely, overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant SIRT1 (H363Y) counteracted decreased ROS levels, increased transcriptional activity of FoxO3a, and increased nuclear import and decreased acetylation of FoxO3a, which were induced by CK2 upregulation. CK2 downregulation destabilized SIRT1 protein via an ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in human cells, whereas CK2 overexpression reduced ubiquitination of SIRT1. Finally, the SIRT1 activator resveratrol attenuated the accumulation of ROS and lipofuscin as well as lifespan shortening, and reduced expression of the DAF-16 target gene sod-3, which were induced by CK2 downregulation in nematodes. Altogether, this study demonstrates that inactivation of the SIRT1–FoxO3a axis, at least in part, is involved in ROS generation during CK2 downregulation-mediated cellular senescence and nematode aging.