Glutaredoxin 1 (GLRX1) has been recognized as an important regulator of redox signaling. Although GLRX1 plays an essential roles in cell survival as an antioxidant protein, the function of GLRX1 protein in inflammatory response is still under investigated. Therefore, we determined whether transduced PEP-1-GLRX1 protein inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation. In LPS exposed Raw 264.7 cells, PEP-1-GLRX1 inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-B) expression levels. In TPA-induced mouse ear edema model, topically applied PEP-1-GLRX1 transduced into ear tissues and significantly ameliorated ear edema. Our data reveal that PEP-1-GLRX1 attenuates inflammation in vitro and in vivo, suggesting PEP-1-GLRX1 may be a potential therapeutic protein for inflammatory diseases.