Abstract

 

DNA methylation at CpG sites is an essential epigenetic mark that regulates gene expression during mammalian development and diseases. Methylome refers to the entire set of methylation modifications present in the whole genome. Over the last several years, an increasing number of reports on brain DNA methylome reported the association between aberrant methylation and the abnormalities in the expression of critical genes known to have critical roles during aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Consequently, the role of methylation in understanding neurodegenerative diseases has been under focus. This review outlines the current knowledge of the human brain DNA methylomes during aging and neurodegenerative diseases. We describe the differentially methylated genes from fetal stage to old age and their biological functions. Additionally, we summarize the key aspects and methylated genes identified from brain methylome studies on neurodegenerative diseases. The brain methylome studies could provide a basis for studying the functional aspects of neurodegenerative diseases.