Abstract

 

Hepatic macrophages are key immune cells associated with the broad ranges of liver diseases including steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Hepatic macrophages interact with other immune cells and orchestrate hepatic immune circumstances. Recently, the heterogenous populations of hepatic macrophages have been discovered termed residential Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages, and identified their distinct population dynamics during the progression of various liver diseases. Liver injury lead to Kupffer cells activation with induction of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which triggers recruitment of inflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages. To understand liver pathology, the functions of different subtypes of liver macrophages should be regarded with different perspectives. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the roles of hepatic macrophages under liver damages and suggest hepatic macrophages as promising therapeutic targets for treating liver diseases.