Thioredoxin-like protein 1, one of the thioredoxin superfamily known as redox-regulator, plays an essential in maintaining cell survival via various antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. It is well known that relationship between ischemia and oxidative stress, however, the role of TXNL1 protein in ischemic damage has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we aimed to determine the protective role of TXNL1 against on ischemic injury in vitro and in vivo using cell permeable Tat-TXNL1 fusion protein. Transduced Tat-TXNL1 inhibited ROS production and cell death in H2O2-exposed hippocampal neuronal (HT-22) cells and modulated MAPKs and Akt activation, and pro-apoptotic protein expression levels in the cells. In an ischemia animal model, Tat-TXNL1 markedly decreased hippocampal neuronal cell death and the activation of astrocytes and microglia. These findings indicate that cell permeable Tat-TXNL1 protects against oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo ischemic animal model. Therefore, we suggest Tat-TXNL1 can be a potential therapeutic protein for ischemic injury.