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Glucosamine Increases Macrophage Lipid Accumulation by Regulating the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway
Sang-Min Kim1,# (Inha University, Graduate student), Dong Yeol Kim1,# (Inha University, Postdoc), Young-Ah Moon2 (Inha University, Professor), Inn-Oc Han 1,* (Inha University, Professor)
1Department of Biomedical Science, Inha University
Elevation of blood glucose is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis development. Data from the current study showed that glucosamine (GlcN), a normal glucose metabolite of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP), promoted lipid accumulation in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Oleic acid- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lipid accumulation was further enhanced by GlcN in RAW264.7 cells, although the rate of fatty acid uptake was not significantly changed. GlcN increased acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), scavenger receptor class A, liver X receptor and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA expression, and conversely, suppressed ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA-1) and ABCG-1 expression. Additionally, GlcN promoted O-GlcNAcylation of nuclear SREBP-1 but did not affect its DNA binding activity in RAW264.7 cells. GlcN stimulated phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and S6 kinase. The mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, suppressed GlcN-induced lipid accumulation in RAW264.7 cells. The GlcN-mediated increase in ACC and FAS mRNA was suppressed, while the decrease in ABCA-1 and ABCG-1 by GlcN was not significantly altered by rapamycin. Our collective results highlight the importance of the mTOR signaling pathway in GlcN-induced macrophage lipid accumulation and further support a potential link between mTOR and HBP signaling in lipogenesis.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on August 31, 2023, Accepted on November 3, 2023]
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