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DNA regulatory element cooperation and competition in transcription
Haram Lee1 (Graduate student), Meyer J. Friedman1 (Graduate student), Sang Bum Kim1 (Professor), Soohwan Oh1,* (Professor)
1College of Pharmacy Korea University, 2511 Sejong-ro, Sejong 30019, Republic of Korea,
2Department and School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA,
3College of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul 01795, Republic of Korea
Abstract
Regulation of eukaryotic transcription is a complex process that enables precise temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Promoters, which are cis-regulatory elements (CREs) located proximal to the transcription start site (TSS), selectively integrate regulatory cues from distal CREs, or enhancers, and their associated transcriptional machinery. In this review, we discuss current knowledge regarding CRE cooperation and competition impacting gene expression, including features of enhancer–promoter, enhancer–enhancer, and promoter–promoter interplay. We also provide an overview of recent insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms that facilitate physical and functional interaction of regulatory elements, such as the involvement of enhancer RNAs and biomolecular condensates.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on May 9, 2024, Accepted on June 11, 2024]
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