Abstract

 

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious disease in which blood sugar levels rise abnormally because of failed insulin production or decreased insulin sensitivity. Although many studies are being conducted for the treatment or early diagnosis of DM, it is not fully understood how mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) abnormalities appear in patients with DM. Here, we induced iPSCs from fibroblasts, PBMCs, or pancreatic cells of three patients with type 2 DM (T2D) and three patients with non-diabetes counterpart. The mtDNA mutations were detected randomly without any tendency among tissues or patients. In T2D patients, 62% (21/34) of iPSC clones harbored multiple mtDNA mutations, of which 37% were homoplasmy at the 100% mutation level compared to only 8% in non-diabetes. We next selected iPSC clones that were a wild type or carried mutations and differentiated into pancreatic cells. Oxygen consumption rates were significantly lower in cells carrying mutant mtDNA. Additionally, the mutant cells exhibited decreased production of insulin and reduced secretion of insulin in response to glucose. Overall, the results suggest that screening mtDNA mutations in iPSCs from patients with T2D is an essential step before pancreatic cell differentiation for disease modeling or autologous cell therapy.