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New therapeutic approach with Extracellular vesicles from stem cells for intestinal cystitis/bladder pain syndrome
Ahmed Abdal Dayem 1 (Academic Research Professor), Kwonwoo Song 1 (Graduate student), Soobin Lee 1 (Research worker), Aram Kim 1 (Professor), Ssang-Goo Cho 1,* (Professor)
1Department of Stem Cell & Regenerative Biotechnology and IDASI, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea,
2Department of Urology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea
Abstract
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a debilitating chronic disorder characterized by suprapubic pain and urinary symptoms such as urgency, nocturia, and frequency. The prevalence of IC/BPS is increasing as diagnostic criteria become more comprehensive. Conventional pharmacotherapy against IC/BPS has shown suboptimal effects, and consequently, patients with end-stage IC/BPS are subjected to surgery. The novel treatment strategies should have two main functions, anti-inflammatory action and the regeneration of glycosaminoglycan and urothelium layers. Stem cell therapy has been shown to have dual functions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic option for IC/BPS, but they come with several shortcomings, such as immune activation and tumorigenicity. MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) hold numerous therapeutic cargos and are thus a viable cell-free therapeutic option. In this review, we provide a brief overview of IC/BPS pathophysiology and limitations of the MSC-based therapies. Then we provide a detailed explanation and discussion of therapeutic applications of EVs in IC/BPS as well as the possible mechanisms. We believe our review will give an insight into the strengths and drawbacks of EV-mediated IC/BPS therapy and will provide a basis for further development.
Abstract, Accepted Manuscript [Submitted on February 23, 2022, Accepted on March 28, 2022]
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