Ribosomes, acting as the cellular factories for protein production, are essential for all living organisms. Ribosomes are composed of both proteins and RNAs and are established through the coordination of several steps, including transcription, maturation of ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and assembly of ribosomal proteins. In particular, diverse factors required for ribosome biogenesis, such as transcription factors, small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA)-associated proteins, and assembly factors, are tightly regulated by various post-translational modifications. Among these modifications, small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) targets lots of proteins required for gene expression of ribosomal proteins, rRNA, and snoRNAs, rRNA processing, and ribosome assembly. The tight control of SUMOylation affects functions and locations of substrates. This review summarizes current studies and recent progress of SUMOylation-mediated regulation of ribosome biogenesis.